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PCBA

PCBA Process

PCBA process includes the following: 

SMT SMD Processing Link: Solder paste mixing → solder paste printing → SPI → mounting → reflow soldering → AOI → rework.

DIP Plug-in Processing Link: Plug-in → wave soldering → clipping feet → post-soldering processing → wash board → quality inspection.

PCBA Test: PCBA test  can be divided into ICT test, FCT test, aging test, vibration test and so on.

PCBA Finished Product Assembly: The test OK PCBA board for the assembly of the shell, and then test, and finally can be shipped.

PCBA processing process refers to the electronic components in accordance with the requirements of the circuit schematic, soldered to the PCB (printed circuit board), and after the test process.

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PCBA Processing Flow

PCB Design and Manufacturing:  According to product requirements, PCB board design and manufacturing. The design needs to take into account the requirements of the circuit schematic, the layout of components, the size and location of the pad and other factors. The manufacturing process needs to ensure the accuracy and quality of the PCB board.

Purchase of Electronic Components: According to the product requirements and PCB design, purchase electronic components that meet the specifications. The quality, model, specification and other factors of the components need to be considered during procurement.

Component Inspection and Screening: Inspection and screening of the purchased electronic components to ensure the quality and reliability of the components.

PCB Board Inspection: Inspection of PCB boards, including PCB board size, precision, gold finger protection and so on.

Component Placement: Use SMT mounter to paste the electronic components directly on the surface of the PCB board, through the hot melt adhesive or solder paste to make the components and PCB board welded together.

PCB Board Through The Furnace: Put the mounted PCB board into the reflow soldering furnace, through the control of temperature, time and speed and other factors, so that the solder melts and evenly covers the pads of the components to form a reliable welding.

AOI Inspection: The soldered PCBA boards are inspected using automatic optical inspection equipment to detect soldering defects and problems.

Repair and Rework: Repair and rework the detected problems to ensure the quality and reliability of the PCBA board.

Functional Testing: Use test equipment and programs to test the function of the PCBA board to verify that it meets the product requirements and specifications.

Aging Test: PCBA boards are subjected to long-time power-on test under specific conditions to verify their stability and reliability in specific environments.

Finished Product Assembly: The tested PCBA boards are assembled in the shell, and other necessary assembly and debugging are completed.

Quality Control: Quality control of the finished product, including appearance inspection, performance testing, etc., to ensure the quality and reliability of the product.

PCBA processing process needs to strictly control the quality and reliability of each process link to ensure that the quality and performance of the final product meets the requirements. At the same time, in each link need to carry out the necessary testing and verification, timely detection and problem solving to ensure product quality and reliability.

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Characteristics of The PCBA Process

High Degree of Automation: PCBA  processing process adopts advanced automation equipment, such as mounter, printing machine, AOI inspection equipment, etc., to realize fast and accurate assembly and inspection of electronic components, which greatly improves production efficiency and product quality.

Refined Operation: PCBA  processing process requires operators to have superior skills and experience, and be able to master the characteristics of various electronic components and assembly process to ensure the accuracy and stability of each link.

Strict Quality Control: PCBA machining process requires strict quality control, from the procurement of components, inspection, assembly to the final product testing, each link needs to carry out strict quality control to ensure product reliability and stability.

Customized Production: PCBA  processing process can be customized according to customer needs, to meet the special requirements of different customers and different products, to provide personalized solutions.

High Environmental Requirements: PCBA  processing involves the treatment of electronic waste and environmental issues, need to take a series of environmental protection measures, such as waste classification, recycling and reuse, in order to reduce the impact on the environment.

Short Production Cycle: PCBA processing process adopts SMT technology and DIP technology and other advanced electronic assembly technology, the production cycle is greatly shortened, and can quickly meet customer demand.

Low Cost: PCBA processing process adopts automated equipment and refined operation, which improves production efficiency and product quality and reduces production cost, making PCBA processing a cost-effective electronic manufacturing services.

Strong Customizability: PCBA processing process can be customized according to customer needs, from the selection of components, assembly process development to the appearance of the product design, etc., can be customized according to customer requirements.

Fast Technology Update: With the continuous development of electronic technology, PCBA processing technology is also constantly updated and upgraded. New assembly technology and equipment continue to emerge, making PCBA processing process with higher efficiency and more reliable performance.

Small Pollution to The Environment: PCBA processing process used in the chemical substances and waste has been effectively managed and processed, less pollution to the environment, in line with current environmental requirements.

PCBA processing process has a high degree of automation, refined operation, strict quality control, customized production and environmental protection requirements and other characteristics, these features make PCBA processing in the field of electronics manufacturing has an important position.

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PCBA Process Considerations

Positioning Accuracy: In the PCBA processing process, positioning accuracy is very important. Once inaccurate positioning occurs, it may have a significant impact on the processing results. Therefore, accurate positioning of the PCB board is required before processing.

Prevent Short-circuiting: In the processing process, it is necessary to prevent the PCB board from short-circuiting. If there are two different layers on the PCB board, then you need to make sure they are insulated before connecting them. Otherwise, they may short-circuit, resulting in the entire board not working properly.

Component Placement: When placing components, you need to make sure that they are placed in the correct orientation and that their polarity is correct. If components are placed incorrectly or with the wrong polarity, the board may not function properly.

Prevent Over-soldering: During the soldering process, you need to prevent over-soldering. If the soldering time is too long or the soldering temperature is too high, it may lead to excessive melting of the solder joints on the PCB board, making the solder joints weak or short-circuited.

Keep Clean: in the PCBA processing process, you need to keep the work area clean. If the working area is not clean, it may lead to contaminants on the PCB board to affect the soldering effect or make the components can not work properly.

Avoid Overexposure: In the process, you need to avoid overexposure of the PCB. If the PCB is exposed to air, it may lead to oxidation or contamination. Therefore, care needs to be taken to protect the PCB during processing.

Follow Safety Regulations: In the process of PCBA processing, you need to follow the relevant safety regulations. For example, if you use chemicals or high temperature equipment, you need to follow the relevant safety regulations to avoid accidents.

Strict Control of Processing Parameters: In the PCBA processing process, you need to strictly control the processing parameters, such as temperature, time, pressure, etc.. If the parameters are not properly controlled, it may have a significant impact on the processing results.

In short, PCBA processing processes need to pay attention to issues including accurate positioning, prevent short-circuit, component placement, prevent excessive welding, maintain cleanliness, avoid excessive exposure, follow safety regulations and strict control of processing parameters. Only these issues have been fully noted and resolved in order to ensure the smooth progress of PCBA processing and production of high-quality products.

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SMT SMD Processing Flow

Solder Paste Mixing: Mix the solder paste according to a certain ratio and composition, so that it has the appropriate viscosity and fluidity.

Solder Paste Printing: Use the printing machine to print the solder paste onto the pads of the PCB boardso that a uniform layer of solder paste is formed on the pads.

SPI: Use SPI equipment to check the quality of solder paste printing, such as whether there is any leakage, less tin, offset and other problems.

Mounting: Place the components on the pads of the PCB board and use the mounting machine to fix them.

Reflow Soldering: Solder the PCB board through the reflow oven to firmly connect the components with the PCB board.

AOI: Use AOI equipment to check the quality of soldering, such as whether there are problems such as false soldering, short circuit, less tin.

Rework: For the problems checked, carry out rework and retest to ensure the quality of PCBA.

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DIP Plug-in Processing Flow

Plug-in:  The plug-in material for the processing of pins, inserted in the PCB board.

Wave Soldering: The inserted board over the wave soldering, this process will have liquid tin spray to the PCB board, and then cooled to complete the welding.

Trimming:  The soldered board, the pins are too long and need to be trimmed.

Post-soldering Process: Using a soldering iron for manual soldering of components.

Wash The Board: After wave soldering, the board will be dirty, need to use the wash water and wash board tank for cleaning, or use the machine for cleaning.

Quality Inspection: Check the PCBA board, unqualified products need to be reworked, qualified products to enter the next process.

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PCBA Test Process

Program Burning: Engineers burn the program on the microcontroller in the PCBA board, so that the microcontroller can achieve specific functions.

ICT Test: Using test probes to connect the contacts on the PCB board, to test the function of the components on the circuit board.

FCT Test: Place the PCBA board on the test rack, connect the test points with the FCT test rack to ensure that the device is a complete path. Then connect the computer and burner, upload the MCU program and run it; observe the voltage and current values between the test points on the FCT test frame, as well as verify whether it matches with the design, so as to complete the test of the whole PCBA board.

Aging Test: PCBA board for high and low temperature environment, temperature cycling and other tests.

Comprehensive Testing: PCBA boards are placed in a specific environment, and various inputs and operations are performed to test their performance and reliability.

Functional Test: According to the product specifications and design requirements, the PCBA board's various functions are tested to ensure that it functions properly.

Durability Test: PCBA boards are subjected to long-time, high-intensity operation tests to detect their stability and durability.

Environmental Adaptability Test: The PCBA board will be placed in a variety of harsh environmental conditions, such as high temperature, low temperature, high humidity, salt spray and other environments to detect its environmental adaptability.

Safety Test: PCBA boards are tested for safety performance, such as over-current protection, over-voltage protection, short-circuit protection and other tests to ensure that their safety performance meets the requirements.

Reliability Testing: Through a variety of test means and methods to analyze and assess the reliability of the PCBA board to determine its reliability and stability.

These steps are the basic process of PCBA testing, each step has its own specific requirements and operational specifications, requiring operators to operate in strict accordance with the provisions.

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PCBA Finished Product Assembly Process

Solder Paste Stirring: After taking the solder paste out of the refrigerator and thawing it, use hand or machine to stir it in order to make it suitable for printing and soldering.

Solder Paste Printing: Place the solder paste on the stencil, and print the solder paste onto the PCB pads by squeegee leakage.

SPI Detection: SPI is the solder paste thickness detector, which can detect the condition of solder paste printing and play a role in controlling the effect of solder paste printing.

SMD: SMD components are placed on the Flyer, and the head of the SMD machine accurately mounts the components on the Flyer on the PCB pads through identification.

Reflow Soldering: The PCB board will be mounted over the reflow soldering, after the high temperature inside the role of the paste paste heat into liquid, and finally cooled and solidified to complete the welding.

AOI Detection: AOI that is, automatic optical inspection, through the scanning of the PCB board welding effect can be detected, can detect the board is bad.

Rework: AOI or manually detected defective for rework.

Insertion: Insert electronic components into the holes of the PCB board.

Wave Soldering: Weld the PCB board with inserted components by wave soldering machine.

Cutting Pins: Cut off the excess pins on the soldered PCB board.

Post-soldering Processing: Carry out some processing after welding, such as patch welding, repair and so on.

Wash The Board: Clean  the PCB board, remove surface impurities and pollutants.

Quality Inspection: Conduct quality inspection to confirm whether the product meets the quality requirements.

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