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PCB Design

PCB Design Process

PCB design includes the following:

Determine the Design Requirements and Specifications: Specify the size, shape, material, number of layers, wiring requirements, etc. of the PCB board, as well as the layout and connection of electronic components.

PCB Layer Structure: PCB board  is mainly composed of pads, over holes, mounting holes, wires, components, connectors, filler, electrical boundaries and so on. According to the design requirements and specifications, PCB boards can be single-layer boards, double-layer boards or multilayer boards. Multilayer boards are printed circuit boards made of multiple layers of thin boards stacked on top of each other to provide higher electrical performance and stability.

Component Layout: Component layout is an important part of PCB design. Layout needs to take into account the shape, size, heat dissipation requirements and other factors, as well as the length of the signal transmission path and timing requirements. Reasonable layout components can reduce signal interference, improve circuit performance and stability.

Wiring Design: Wiring design is the core of PCB design, need to consider the stability and efficiency of signal transmission. Wiring needs to follow certain rules and standards, such as the principle of equal length, minimum line width principle. At the same time, you also need to consider the distribution and connection of power and ground to provide stable power and good grounding.

Special Process Design: Special process design includes buried holes, blind holes, through holes, etc., which need to be selected and designed according to the design requirements and specifications. These special processes can provide better electrical performance and stability, but also can improve the difficulty and cost of PCB board manufacturing.

Testing and Verification: After completing the PCB design, testing and verification are required, including electrical performance testing, physical performance testing, signal integrity testing, etc. The purpose of testing and verification is to detect and minimize the risk of damage to the PCB. The purpose of testing and verification is to find and solve the problems and defects in the design to ensure that the performance and quality of the PCB board meets the requirements.

Document Output: According to the design requirements and specifications, output the corresponding documents, such as PCB board diagrams, component lists, wiring diagrams and so on. These documents can provide detailed design and manufacturing information of the PCB board to facilitate subsequent manufacturing and use.

PCB design requires comprehensive consideration of a number of factors, including electrical performance, physical properties, manufacturability, maintainability and so on. It is also necessary to follow the appropriate codes and standards to ensure that the performance and quality of the PCB board meets the requirements.

PCB Design-1

Characteristics of the PCB Design Process

In the PCB design process, the following points need to be noted:

Highly Automated: Modern PCB design software can realize a high degree of automation, including automatic wiring, automatic inspection and other functions, greatly improving the design efficiency and accuracy.

Refined Design: PCB design  needs to be refined, including the size of the board, shape, number of layers, wiring rules, etc. need to be accurately controlled to ensure that the electrical and mechanical properties of the board.

Many Considerations: PCB design requires comprehensive consideration of a variety of factors, including circuit schematic, component selection, signal integrity, power integrity, thermal design and so on.

Fast Update: With the continuous progress of technology, PCB design standards and requirements are constantly updated. Designers need to constantly learn new design methods and concepts to adapt to changing market demand.

Focus on Environmental Protection: PCB design process needs to consider environmental factors, choose environmentally friendly materials and processes to reduce the impact on the environment.

Safety and Reliability: PCB design needs to ensure the safety and reliability of the circuit board, including component selection, the development of wiring rules, overload protection and other aspects to ensure that the circuit board in the process of use safety and reliability.

Cost Optimization: PCB design needs to consider factors such as manufacturing costs and material costs, designers need to meet the performance requirements under the premise of reducing costs as much as possible to improve cost-effective.

PCB  design process has a high degree of automation, refinement of the design, consideration of many factors, fast update, focus on environmental protection, safety and reliability, as well as cost optimization and other characteristics. These features make PCB design a highly complex and delicate task.

PCB Design-2

PCB Design Process Considerations

In the PCB design process, the following points need to pay attention:

Component Layout: The layout should ensure that all components on the board are neatly arranged and compact, and the power supply, ground, etc. should be as close as possible to the components that need to dissipate heat in order to reduce the thermal resistance.

Wiring Rules: Wiring should follow the design rules to avoid cross, parallel wiring, and to ensure that the signal lines, power lines, etc. are independent, to avoid mutual interference.

Power Filtering and Decoupling: In the design process, attention should be paid to adding filtering capacitors, decoupling capacitors, etc., in order to improve the stability and reliability of the circuit.

Grounding: Grounding is a very important part of PCB design, should follow the principle of single-point grounding to ensure that the grounding resistance is small, reliable grounding.

Thermal Design: In the design process should be considered in the heat dissipation problem, to ensure that the components will not be damaged due to overheating.

Electromagnetic Compatibility: Electromagnetic compatibility is a PCB design process must be considered, effective measures should be taken to avoid electromagnetic interference.

Maintainability: In the design process should consider the maintainability of the circuit board, easy to repair and replace components.

Cost Control: Under the premise of meeting the performance requirements, should try to reduce manufacturing costs, select the appropriate materials and processes.

PCB Design

In addition, PCB design also needs to pay attention to the following points:

Compliance with PCB Design Specifications: Before starting the design, you should familiarize yourself with the PCB design specifications, including board size, number of layers, line width, line spacing, aperture, etc., to ensure that the design meets the requirements.

Small-signal Circuit Protection: For small-signal circuits, attention should be paid to protection, such as the use of packet ground and other measures to reduce interference.

Crystal Circuit Special Treatment: Crystal circuit belongs to the small signal circuit, should be placed close to the chip pins, the distance is too far away from the interference is likely to occur.

Avoid Short-circuit: When placing the four pins of capacitors, do not interrupt the line from the center to avoid short-circuit.

Correct Placement of Capacitors: The placement of capacitors should play a proper role, for example, the communication part of the capacitor should be placed close to the pin.

Pay Attention to The Width of The Alignment: The width of the alignment should be determined according to the actual situation, for example, the power supply part of the alignment is not necessarily exactly the same line width.

Prevent The Phenomenon of Standing Monument: Components are unevenly heated during reflow soldering, which can easily lead to component position shift or even vertical phenomenon. Therefore, in the layout of the alignment should pay attention to make the heat uniform.

Component Package Selection: When selecting component packages, attention should be paid to matching the size and pin number of the actual components to avoid mismatched packages.

Design Document Archiving: After completing the PCB design, the design document should be archived and saved to facilitate subsequent modification and maintenance.

PCB design process requires attention to a lot of issues, the designer should have a solid knowledge of electronic fundamentals, a wealth of practical experience and good professionalism in order to design a high-quality PCB board. At the same time, should follow the design rules and specifications for design to avoid unnecessary problems.

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