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PCB Circuit Board Salesman Essential Knowledge(三)

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PCB circuit board salesman should have the following basic knowledge:

G. Printed circuit board standards and quality indicators: Understand the technical level of printed circuit board signs, such as the number of wires in the mass production of double-sided metallized printed circuit board, which reflects the density and reliability of the printed circuit board.

The technology level markers for printed circuit boards are usually related to their manufacturing complexity and performance requirements. For mass-produced double-sided metallized printed circuit boards, one of the indicators of their technical level is the number of wires. This indicator reflects the density and reliability of the printed board.

Number of wires:

Density mark: The number of wires that can be laid between two pads on the intersection of a standard 2.50 or 2.54mm grid can be used as a measure of the density of the printed board. For example, one wire between two pads is a low-density printed board, two wires are medium-density, three wires are high-density, and four wires can be counted as an ultra-high-density printed board. The increase in the number of wires means that the conductive path per unit area of the printed board increases, thus improving the integration and complexity of the circuit.

Reliability mark: The increase in the number of wires also reflects the improvement in the manufacturing technology of the printed board. In high-density printed circuit boards, the conductor width and spacing are very small, requiring high-precision manufacturing processes to ensure that the precise placement of the conductor and the reliability of the soldering. Therefore, the ability to stably manufacture high-density printed boards in mass production is an important indication of the level of technology.

Other technology level markers

Aperture size and number of layers: For multilayer boards, aperture size and number of layers are also important indicators of the level of technology. Smaller apertures mean higher precision and tighter wiring, while multilayer structures allow for more complex circuit designs and higher levels of integration.

Line width/Board thickness ratio: The level of development of printed circuits can also be assessed by the ratio of line width to board thickness. Smaller line widths and thinner board thicknesses mean higher manufacturing precision and smaller volumes, which are critical to achieving miniaturization and lightweighting of electronic devices.

Surface treatment technology: The surface treatment technology of the printed circuit board, such as metallization holes, anti-solder layer, solder resist layer, etc., is also an important factor in evaluating its technology level. These technologies can improve the electrical performance, mechanical strength and reliability of the printed circuit board.

PCB-10

H. The realization of printed circuit boards:Understand the design and manufacturing process of PCB circuit boards, including the generation of schematic diagrams, wiring, material handling and final assembly steps.

The design and manufacturing process of PCB circuit boards involves multiple steps, from schematic generation to final assembly. The following is a detailed overview of these steps:


Design Phase

Schematic Generation:

This is the starting point of the entire design process and contains all the components of the circuit and how they are connected to each other.

Using electronic design automation (EDA) software, the engineer draws the schematic of the circuit and ensures that the electrical connections between the components are correct.

Cabling:

Also known as PCB layout and routing, this is the process of translating the schematic into an actual PCB layout.

The engineer needs to determine where the components will be located on the PCB and the path of the wires between them.

Considering electrical performance, signal integrity, thermal design, and other factors, routing must be precise and efficient.

Simulation and verification:

Use simulation software to check the electrical performance of the design and ensure that all features work as expected before actual manufacturing.

Simulation may include circuit analysis, thermal analysis, mechanical analysis, and more.


Manufacturing Phase

Material handling:

Select the appropriate substrate material, such as FR4, CEM-1, metal substrate, etc., depending on the application requirements.

Prepare required conductive materials (e.g. copper foil) and other auxiliary materials (e.g. solder resist, solder mask, etc.).

PCB fabrication:

Form the desired circuit pattern on the substrate by chemical etching or other methods.

Holes are drilled to form through-holes for connecting circuits in different layers.

Metallization of circuits, such as copper plating, tin plating, etc., to enhance conductivity.

Surface Finishing:

Applying soldermask to protect non-soldered areas from short circuits.

Application of solder mask on pads for subsequent soldering operations.

Quality Inspection:

Upon completion of manufacturing, the PCB is subjected to a detailed quality inspection to ensure that there are no defects or errors.

A combination of automated equipment and manual inspection is used to ensure that each PCB meets quality standards.


Assembly Stage

Component Soldering:

Solder electronic components to the PCB, either using manual soldering, wave soldering or surface mount technology (SMT).

Ensure soldering quality to avoid problems such as short or open circuits.

Functional Testing:

Functional testing of the assembled PCB to ensure that all components are working properly.

This may include power-on tests, software validation, etc.

Final Inspection & Packaging:

Final inspection of the PCB is carried out through visual inspection and automated test equipment.

After confirming that there are no errors, they are packaged and labeled in preparation for shipment.

The entire design and manufacturing process requires stringent quality control and technical support to ensure the performance, reliability and cost-effectiveness of the PCB. With the continuous progress of technology, automation and intelligence are more and more widely used in PCB manufacturing, improving production efficiency and product quality.


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