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Final Board Testing

Final Board Testing

PCBA Testing Process

PCBA test is the most critical quality control link in the whole PCBA processing process, which determines the final performance of the product. The current PCBA main test items include ICT test, FCT test, aging test, fatigue test.

1, ICT test: mainly contains the circuit on and off, voltage and current values and fluctuation curves, amplitude, noise and so on.

2, FCT test: need to carry out IC program burning, the function of the whole PCBA board simulation test, find out the hardware and software in the problem, and equipped with the necessary SMD processing production fixtures and test racks.

3, Aging test: mainly PCBA boards and electronic products for a long time to power, keep it working and observe whether there is any failure failure, after aging test of electronic products to batch factory sales.

4, Fatigue test: mainly on the PCBA board samples, and the function of high-frequency, long operation, observe whether the failure, to determine the probability of failure test, so as to provide feedback on the performance of electronic products within the PCBA board.

What are the common test methods for PCBA?

1, Manual Visual Inspection

Artificial visual inspection is a more primitive method of PCBA test, mainly with the help of a magnifying glass to check the circuit of the PCBA board and electronic components of the welding situation, to see if there is a monument, even bridge, more tin, weld whether the bridge, whether the welding and welding is less incomplete. Nowadays, the number of components on the PCB and miniaturization trend is obvious, a lot of defects are difficult to be found, and manual inspection is inefficient, not to make the PCB assembly line for mass production.

2, AOI Optical Inspection

Automatic optical inspection, also known as automatic visual testing, carried out by a specialized detector, used before and after reflow, the polarity of the components to check the effect is better. Optical inspection can not be completed on the physical aspects of the performance test, such as circuit breakage and so on.

3, ICT Needle Bed Test

In the mass production of factories there is no way to let the meter slowly to measure each board on each resistor, capacitance, inductance, and even IC circuit is correct, so ICT (In-Circuit-Test) automated test machine appeared, it uses multiple probes (generally known as the "needle bed (Bed-Of-Nails)" fixtures) at the same time to contact the board all the parts that need to be measured line, the need to be measured. Need to be measured parts of the circuit, and then through the programmed control to the sequence of the main, parallel as a supplement to the way the characteristics of these electronic parts measured in a sequential manner.

Needle bed to do circuit testing will have some limitations, for example: the minimum diameter of the probe has a certain limit, too small a diameter of the needle is easy to break and destroy.

The distance between the needles also has a certain limit, because each needle has to come out of a hole, and the back end of each needle has to be welded to a flat cable, if the neighboring holes are too small, in addition to the needle and the needle will have contact between the short-circuit problem, the flat cable interference is also a major problem.

In addition, it is not possible to plant needles next to certain high parts. If the probe is too close to a high part, there is a risk of damage from collision with the high part. In addition, because the part is high, it is often necessary to cut a hole in the test fixture's needle bed holder to avoid it, which also indirectly makes it impossible to plant a needle. Circuit boards are increasingly difficult to accommodate all the parts of the test point.

4, Flying Probe Test

Flying needle test is considered by many to be a new test technology is expected to replace the needle bed test, flying needle tester in the test accuracy, speed, reliability, coverage, rapid progress in the past few years has been generally welcomed. In addition, now for prototype (Prototype) manufacturing, small and medium production PCBs and PCBAs need to have a rapid changeover, no fixture capability of the test system requirements, making flying probe test flexibility and economic foot highlights.

The main advantage of flying probe tester is that it is able to accelerate the time to market (time-to-market) tools, automatic test generation, no fixture costs, good diagnostics and easy programming. Advanced flying probe tester also integrates 3D laser testing, burn-in programming, boundary scan and many other useful functions.

5, MDA Manufacturing Defect Aanalyzer

MDA ( Manufacturing Defect Analyzer) is a tool for high volume / low mix environment, where the test is only used to diagnose manufacturing defects. Repeatability between testers is an issue when residual reduction techniques are not used. Also, MDA does not have digital drivers, so it cannot functionally test components or program on-board firmware. Test time is less than visual testing, so MDAs are able to keep up with the beat of the production line.

PCBA manufacturing process is complex, in the production process, may encounter a variety of product defects in the process. PCBA test methods and test equipment, should be based on the specific characteristics of the PCBA to decide.

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Final Board Testing-1

Final Board Testing-1

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