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Component Mounting

PCB Component Installation Process (PCBA)

A. PCBA production process is as follows.

    1, PCB board: First of all, we have to carry out the production of PCB boards, so that the board made of just an empty board.

    2, Material Inventory: Organize the BOM list, the PCBA board needs to be used in the material components and other inventory and preparation.

    3, SMT patch: electronic components mounted on the surface of the PCB board. Mainly includes paste, patch, reflow soldering.

    4, Optical Inspection: Through automatic optical inspection, the camera scans the PCB board, and then after image processing, it checks whether there is any error in PCB board welding, such as mounting, shifting, wrong foot, and missing parts.

    5, ICT Inspection: Through the automatic on-line detector, check the production process, such as component insertion error, mounting reverse, false soldering, short-circuit and other issues.

    6, DIP plug-in: DIP package components will be inserted in the corresponding position on the PCB board.

    7, Wave soldering: after wave soldering, so that the plug-in pins are fixed on the pad, remove the excess pins, clean off the wave soldering traces.

    8, Again ICT testing: testing the electrical properties of components and welding defects, from which to find out whether there are components and production processes and other issues.

    9, Manual visual inspection: review through manual visual inspection, the second screening.

    10,Through-break detection: test the PCBA board of multiple connections, misconnections, open circuits, short circuits and poor contact and so on.

    11, Program burning: the use of burner will burn the program through the burner port to the PCBA board chip.

    12, FCT test: that is, the function test, through the simulation of the PCBA board running test to obtain the output parameters, so as to determine whether the board's function is qualified.

    13, Packaged for shipment: through the various tests, you can send the PCBA board packaged for customers.

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B. DFM Check

The DFM check looks at all the design specifications of the PCB. It will look for any missing, redundant or potentially problematic features.

C. Incoming Quality Control (IQC)

Verifies all incoming materials and addresses quality issues before SMT assembly begins. Our IQC position will check that incoming materials meet our strict requirements.

  1. 1, According to the type and quantity of the BOM list;
  2. 2, Shape (deformation, broken pins, oxidation, etc.), especially for ICs or other complex components;
  3. 3, Sample testing of incoming materials using test stands, multimeters and other tools.

If any of the above defects or discrepancies occur, we will return the entire material received to the supplier or customer.

D. Machine Programming - Gerber/CAD to Centroid/Placement/XY files

After receiving the PCB panels and assemblies, the next step is to set up the various machines used in the manufacturing process. Machines such as placement machines and AOI (Automated Optical Inspection) require the creation of a program, which is ideally generated from CAD data but is often not available. Gerber data is almost always available as this is what is needed to manufacture bare PCBs.

E. Solder Paste Printing

The first machine set up in the SMT production process is the solder paste printer, which is designed to apply solder paste to the appropriate pads on the PCB using a stencil and squeegee.

F. Component Placement

Once the printed PCB is confirmed to have the correct amount of solder paste applied, it moves on to the next part of the manufacturing process, component placement. Each component is removed from the package using a vacuum nozzle or fixture nozzle, inspected by a vision system and placed in the programmed position at high speed.

G. Pre-Reflow Automated Optical Inspection (AOI)

After the component placement process, it is important to verify that no errors have occurred and that all parts have been placed correctly prior to reflow soldering. The best way to perform this operation is to use an AOI machine to check for things like component presence, type/value and polarity.

H. Reflow Soldering

After placing the components on the board, each piece will be sent through our reflow soldering machine. This means that the solder paste needs to be cured to adhere the component to the board, and PCB assembly accomplishes this through a process called "reflow".

I. Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) After Reflow

The final part of the surface mount assembly process is to check the quality of the solder joints again for errors using an AOI machine.

Checking for these errors and misalignments may involve one of several different inspection methods. The most common of these inspection methods include:

  1. 1, manual inspection
  2. 2, Automatic Optical Inspection (AOI)
  3. 3, Automated X-ray Inspection (AXI)
  4. 4, AOI inspection

J. Conformal Coating

Some finished printed circuit board assemblies have a conformal coating. This usually depends on the customer's product requirements.

K. Final Inspection and Functional Testing

After the soldering and conformal coating steps of the PCB assembly process are completed, a final inspection is performed by our quality assurance team to test the functionality of the PCB. This inspection is called "Functional Test". Test software and tools are usually supplied by the customer, and fixtures can also be fabricated upon request.

L. Washing and Drying

It is fair to say that the manufacturing process can be dirty. Solder paste leaves some flux behind, and oil and dirt on the product surface need to be cleaned.

M. Packing and Transportation

All assembled boards are packaged (anti-static packaging can be requested) Any unused components are returned according to customer instructions. In addition, the customer will be notified by e-mail when the package is shipped.

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