The Basic PCB Process Can be Summarized in The Following Steps
Pre-preparation: This includes preparing component libraries and schematics. Component libraries can be downloaded from forums, websites, etc., or make your own. Schematic diagrams need to be drawn according to the circuit design requirements.
PCB Structure Design: According to the determined board size and various mechanical positioning, draw the PCB board surface in the PCB design environment, and place the required connectors, buttons/switches, screw holes, assembly holes, etc. according to the positioning requirements. At the same time, the need to fully consider and determine the wiring area and non-wiring area (such as screw holes around how much belongs to the non-wiring area).
PCB Layout: Reasonable partition according to electrical performance, generally divided into digital circuit area (both fear of interference, but also produce interference), analog circuit area (fear of interference), power-driven area (source of interference). Layout needs to follow some basic principles, such as associated components together for wiring and maintenance; heat-generating components in a well-ventilated place; sensitive components in a place away from the source of interference, and so on.
Wiring: Wiring is performed according to the PCB layout, including automatic wiring and manual wiring in two ways. Wiring needs to consider the integrity of signal transmission, electromagnetic compatibility and other factors.
Wiring Optimization and Silkscreen: Optimize the wiring to improve the performance of the board. At the same time, necessary silkscreen markings are added to facilitate production and maintenance.
Network and DRC checking and structural checking: The connectivity of the board is checked using a network checking tool, and the wiring is checked for compliance with the design specifications using a DRC (Design Rule Check) tool. Structural checking, on the other hand, checks the structure of the board to ensure that it meets the design requirements.
PCB Layer Design: Select the appropriate number of PCB layers according to the actual needs, such as single-layer board, double-layer board or multilayer board. At the same time, it is necessary to consider the functional division of each layer, such as signal layer, power layer and grounding layer.
Component Package Design: According to the actual size of the component and pin arrangement, design the component package form. Component package design directly affects the assembly and reliability of the circuit board.
Electromagnetic Compatibility Design: Electromagnetic compatibility needs to be considered in the wiring process, such as reducing the coupling of signal lines, increase decoupling capacitance, etc., in order to improve the circuit board's anti-interference capability.
Testing and Verification: Before actual production, the designed PCB needs to be tested and verified to ensure that its performance meets the requirements. Testing includes functional testing, performance testing and reliability testing.
Documentation and Archiving: After the completion of the PCB design, you need to organize the relevant design documents, such as schematic diagrams, PCB diagrams, component lists, etc., and archiving and preservation.
In summary, PCB design is a complex process that requires consideration of a number of factors. In the actual design process, it is necessary to continuously optimize and improve the design scheme to ensure that the final circuit board meets the requirements of performance, reliability and economy.
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