PCB Wiring Process and Considerations
The process of PCB wiring is as follows:
According to the complexity of the circuit and the number of devices, determine the size of the PCB board and the number of layers. Common layers are single panel, double-sided board and multilayer board.
According to the characteristics and needs of the circuit, select the appropriate layout method. Common layout methods are star layout, grid layout and area layout.
Determine the layout of signals and power supplies. According to the characteristics of the signals and power supplies in the circuit, lay them out reasonably on the PCB board. Signal lines should be as short and parallel as possible, and power lines should be wide enough and balanced.
Start wiring from the densest area of connectivity on a single board, and try to provide a dedicated wiring layer for critical signals such as clock signals, high-frequency signals, sensitive signals, etc., and to ensure that they have the smallest loop area. If necessary, manual priority wiring, shielding and increased safety spacing should be taken to ensure signal quality.
The EMC environment between the power supply layer and the ground layer is poor, and the arrangement of signals sensitive to interference should be avoided. Networks with impedance control requirements should be wired as far as possible according to the wire length and width requirements.
In the wiring process, pay attention to the direction and width of the alignment to avoid the phenomenon of "backflow". At the same time, we should pay attention to the length and spacing of the signal line to avoid signal interference and transmission delay caused by the length or spacing is too small.
After completing the wiring, you need to carry out DRC check and network check to ensure that the wiring meets the design rules and requirements.
In PCB wiring, the following matters need to be noted:
Consider the direction of the arrangement of components and the distance between them, especially the matching and arrangement of large, medium and small components, and try to maintain uniformity and coordination.
The layout of power lines, ground lines and other wires should be reasonable to minimize the mutual interference between them.
In the multilayer board design, pay attention to the direction and distribution of the signal lines between the layers to minimize the crossover and interference between them.
When wiring, attention needs to be paid to the length and spacing of the signal lines to avoid signal interference and transmission delays caused by too long a length or too small a spacing.
The convenience of testing and maintenance should be considered in the design, leaving enough test points and interfaces.
Consider electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the design, and take appropriate measures to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems.
Consider the heat dissipation of the components in the design, and reasonably plan the heat dissipation path and heat sink installation location.
Consider the production cost problem in the design, and select the appropriate materials, processes and assembly methods to achieve the purpose of reducing costs.
In the wiring process, the principle of left-to-right and top-to-bottom should be followed, and unnecessary corners and crossings should be avoided as much as possible.
In the wiring process, the parallelism and symmetry of the lines should be maintained as much as possible to improve the reliability and stability of the PCB.
In the wiring process, attention should be paid to the width and spacing of the lines to meet the requirements of electrical performance and production process.
In the wiring process, attention should be paid to the connection and layout of the ground line to ensure good grounding performance and electromagnetic compatibility.
In the wiring process, attention should be paid to the direction and layout of the power supply line to reduce the power supply internal resistance and electromagnetic interference.
In the wiring process, attention should be paid to the direction and layout of the signal lines to reduce the signal delay and electromagnetic interference.
In the wiring process, attention should be paid to the placement and layout of components to meet the requirements of the production process and maintenance.
In the wiring process, attention should be paid to prevent the occurrence of errors such as short circuits and circuit breaks.
During the wiring process, attention should be paid to the use of appropriate software tools to aid in design and simulation testing.
Observe Safety Guidelines: During the wiring process, relevant electrical safety guidelines and standards should be observed to ensure the safety of the circuit.
Consider Maintainability: During design, future maintenance and repair of the circuit board should be considered. To this end, test points and interfaces should be reasonably placed to facilitate subsequent testing and maintenance.
Optimize Wiring Length: Under the premise of meeting the design requirements, the wiring length should be optimized as much as possible to reduce signal delay and electromagnetic interference.
Consider Thermal Design: For circuit boards with a large number of heat-generating components, thermal design should be considered to rationally plan heat dissipation paths and heat sink installation locations to minimize the impact of thermal effects on circuit performance.
Consider Electromagnetic Compatibility: In the wiring process, appropriate measures should be taken to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI), such as rational planning of the layout and direction of the ground, power, and signal lines, as well as the use of appropriate filtering and shielding techniques.
Follow Best Practices: During the wiring process, best practices and industry standards should be followed to improve board reliability and stability.
Perform Simulation Testing: After the wiring is completed, simulation testing and verification should be performed to ensure that the circuit performance meets the design requirements.
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