In PCB, Dielectric Constant and Dielectric Loss
Dielectric constant and dielectric loss are two important concepts in electricity. Dielectric constant is the ability of the medium in the electric field response, is the ratio of dielectric capacitance and vacuum capacitance. Dielectric loss is the degree of energy loss in the electric field, is the ratio of dielectric conductivity to dielectric capacitance.
The unit of dielectric constant is farad / m (F / m), in the international system of units can also be expressed in coulomb / volt - m (C / V - m). The unit of dielectric loss is the Sievert (Siemens), and there are also cases where Siemens is used as the unit.
The dielectric constant describes the degree to which a dielectric responds to an electric field and reflects the ability of the dielectric to respond to an electric field. The larger the dielectric constant, the medium in the electric field response ability is stronger, the electric field on the medium of the greater the impact. The size of the dielectric constant is related to the molecular structure of the medium, polarity, density and other factors. For example, the dielectric constant of a polar molecule is usually larger than that of a non-polar molecule.
Dielectric loss is a description of the ability of the medium to absorb the electric field, reflecting the degree of energy loss in the medium in the electric field. The smaller the dielectric loss, the media in the electric field, the smaller the energy loss, the electric field on the media, the smaller the impact. The size of the dielectric loss is related to the molecular structure of the medium, polarity, density, temperature and other factors. For example, the dielectric loss of the medium at high temperature is usually larger than that at low temperature.
Dielectric constant and dielectric loss are two important parameters that measure the performance of a dielectric in an electric field, and their values can affect the performance and stability of a circuit. Therefore, when designing and manufacturing circuits, it is necessary to select the appropriate dielectric material according to the actual needs and consider the effects of its dielectric constant and dielectric loss.
There is a close relationship between dielectric constant and dielectric loss.
The dielectric constant is a parameter that describes the responsiveness of the dielectric in an electric field, while the dielectric loss is a parameter that describes the degree of energy loss of the dielectric in an electric field. The relationship between these two parameters can be expressed by the following equation:
Dielectric loss = dielectric constant × electric field frequency × dielectric loss angle tangent
where the product of the dielectric constant and the tangent of the dielectric loss angle is known as the loss factor, which measures the ability of a dielectric material to absorb electromagnetic waves. The larger the loss factor, the greater the ability of the material to absorb electromagnetic waves, and vice versa.
Therefore, there is a certain correlation between dielectric constant and dielectric loss, and they affect and interact with each other. When selecting dielectric materials, the effects of dielectric constant and dielectric loss need to be considered comprehensively according to actual needs in order to achieve the best circuit performance and stability.
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